聯系電話
中國在職研究生網 > > 正文

2020年考研英語(二)閱讀理解真題及答案

2019-12-25 11:51       來源:    http://www.2216309.live

 Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Rats and other animals need to be highly at tuned to social signals from others so that can identify friends to cooperate with and enemies to avoid. To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals form robotic rats.

  They housed eight adult rats with two types of robotic rat- one social and one asocial一for 5 our days. The robots rats were quite minimalist, resembling a chunkier version of a computer mouse with wheels-to move around and colorful markings.

  During the experiment, the social robot rat followed the living rats around, played with the same toys, and opened caged doors to let trapped rats escape. Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side

  Next, the researchers trapped the robots in cages and gave the rats the opportunity to release them by pressing a lever.

  Across 18 trials each, the living rats were 52 percent more likely on average to set the social robot free than the asocial one. This suggests that the rats perceived the social robot as a genuine social being. They may have bonded more with the social robot because it displayed behaviours like communal exploring and playing. This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn.

  The readiness of the rats to befriend the social robot was surprising given its minimal design. The robot was the same size as a regular rat but resembled a simple plastic box on wheels.“We´ d assumed we´ d have to give it a moving head and tail, facial features, and put a scene on it to make it smell like a real rat, but that wasn’t necessary, ”says Janet Wiles at the University of Queensland in Australia, who helped with the research.

  The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots. Similarly, children tend to treat robots as if they are fellow beings, even when they display only simple social signals.“ We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too,”says Wiles.

  21. Quin and her colleagues conducted a test to see if rats can________

  [A] pickup social signals from non-living rats

  [B] distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one

  [C] attain sociable traits through special training

  [D] send out warning messages to their fellow

  22. What did the social robot do during the experiment?

  [A] It followed the social robot.

  [B]It played with some toys.

  [C] It set the trapped rats free.

  [D]It moved around alone.

  23. According to Quinn, the rats released the social robot because they________

  [A] tried to practice a means of escape

  [B] expected it to do the same in return

  [C] wanted to display their intelligence

  [D]considered that an interesting game

  24. James Wiles notes that rats________

  [A]can remember other rat´s facial features

  [B] differentiate smells better than sizes

  [C] respond more to cations than to looks

  [D]can be scared by a plastic box on wheels

  25. It can be learned from the text that rats________

  [A]appear to be adaptable to new surroundings

  [B] are more socially active than other animals

  C] behave differently from children in socializing

  [D]are more sensitive to social cues than expected

  21. 【答案】A pick up social signals from non-living rats

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞Quinn and her colleagues和a test定位到第一段第二句。To find out if this extends to non-living beings, Loleh Quinn at the University of California, San Diego, and her colleagues tested whether rats can detect social signals from robotic rats. 為了查明這是否延伸到了非生物,Quinn和她的同事測試了老鼠能否從機器老鼠身上探測到社會信號。正確答案A是原文的同義替換。選項B的distinguish a friendly rat from a hostile one區分友好的老鼠和敵對的老鼠,并未提及,是常識性干擾。選項C的attain sociable traits through special training通過特殊訓練獲得社交品質,原文并未提及,屬于無中生有。選項D的send out warning messages to their fellow向它們的同伴發出警告信息,原文并未提及,屬于無中生有。

  22.【答案】D It moved around alone.

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞the asocial robot和experiment定位到第三段最后一句Meanwhile, the asocial robot simply moved forwards and backwards and side to side.同時,不具有社交能力的機器人只能進行簡單的前后左右移動。正確答案D It moved around alone.是原文的同義替換。選項A的It followed the social robot.它跟隨具備社交能力的老鼠,與原文the social robot rat followed the living rats around不符,原文說的是具備社交能力的老鼠跟隨真老鼠,屬于張冠李戴。選項B的It played with some toys.它玩一些玩具,與原文不符,原文中說的是具備社交能力的老鼠玩同樣的玩具,屬于張冠李戴。選項C的It set the trapped rats free.它釋放了被困的老鼠也與原文內容不符,原文說的同樣是具備社交能力的老鼠,而題干問的是不具備社交能力的老鼠在實驗中做了什么,屬于張冠李戴。

  23.【答案】B expected it to do the same in return

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞Quinn和the rats released the social robots往下定位到第四五段,第五段最后一句This could lead to the rats better remembering having freed it earlier, and wanting the robot to return the favour when they get trapped, says Quinn. Quinn說:這可能會讓老鼠更好地記住早些時候已經釋放了機器人,并希望機器人在它們被困住時能回報它們的恩惠。正確答案B expected it to do the same in return是原文的同義替換。干擾項A的 tried to practice a means of escape試圖嘗試一種逃跑的方法,原文并未提及,屬于無中生有。選項C的 wanted to display their intelligence想要展示它們的智慧,文中并未提到,屬于無中生有。選項D的considered that an interesting game覺得是個有趣的游戲在原文當中也沒有體現,屬于無中生有。

  24.【答案】C respond more to actions than to looks

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞James Wiles定位到第六七段,尾段尾句We humans seem to be fascinated by robots, and it turns out other animals are too, says Wiles. Wiles說:“我們人類似乎對機器人很著迷,事實證明其他動物也很著迷。”再結合尾段前面部分的闡述,會發現正確答案C respond more to actions than to looks對行動的反應多于對外表的反應,是原文的類似表達。干擾項A的can remember other rat´s facial features能夠記住其他老鼠的面部特征,與原文內容不符,原文第六段說的是假設賦予機器老鼠面部特征,那都不重要,屬于偷換概念。選項B的differentiate smells better than sizes與體型大小相比,能夠更好地區分氣味,原文中只提到賦予機器老鼠真老鼠的氣味,與原文不符,屬于偷換概念。選項D的can be scared by a plastic box on wheels會被裝有輪子的塑料盒子嚇壞,文中機器老鼠只是裝有輪子的塑料盒子,還是屬于偷換概念。

  25.【答案】D are more sensitive to social cues than expected

  解析:本題目為推斷題,考察基于全文主旨進行推斷。題干并沒有具體關鍵詞,因此需要通過選項回到文中逐一對應。正確答案D are more sensitive to social cues than expected對社交線索比預期更敏感,與原文尾段首句The finding shows how sensitive rats are to social cues, even when they come from basic robots.(這一發現顯示了老鼠對社交暗示的敏感程度,即使是來自基本機器老鼠的社交暗示)屬于類似表達。選項A的appear to be adaptable to new surroundings似乎能適應新環境,在文中并未提及,屬于無中生有。選項B的are more socially active than other animals比其他動物更活躍,文中只提到其他動物也一樣會對機器人著迷,屬于偷換概念。干擾項C的behave differently from children in socializing在社交活動中表現得與孩子不同,與原文內容相反,原文內容指的是孩子們傾向于把機器人當作人來對待,即使他們只顯示簡單的社會信號。這一點與老鼠是一樣的,屬于正反混淆。

  Text 2

  It is true that CEO pay has gone up-top ones may make 300 times the pay of typical workers on average, and since the mid-1970s CEO pay for large publicly traded American corporations has, by varying estimates, gone up by about 500% The typical CEO of a top American corporation now makes about S18.9 million a year.

  The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly. The efforts of America´s highest-earning 1% have been one of the more dynamic elements of the global economy. It´s not popular to say, but one reason their pay has gone up so much is that CEOs really have upped their game relative to many other workers in the U.S. economy.

  Today´s CEO, at least for major American firms, must have many mere skills than simply being able to“run the company" CEOs must have a good sense of financial markets and maybe even how the company should trade in them. They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. Then there´ s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before,with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. To lead in that system requires knowledge that is farly mind-boggling plus, virtually all major American companies are beyond this major CEOs still have to do all the day-to-day work they have always done.

  The common idea that high CEO pay is mainly about ripping people off doesn´t explain history very well. By most measures, corporate governmance has become a lot tighter and more rigorous since the 1970s. Yet it is principally during this period of stronger govemnance that CEO pay has been high and rising. That suggests it is in the broader corporate interest to recruit top candidates for increasingly tough jobs.”

  Furthermore, the highest CEO salaries are paid to outside candidates, not to the cozy insider picks, another sign that high CEO pay is not some kind of depredation at the expense of the rest of the company. And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.

  26. Which of the following has contributed to CEO pay rise?

  [A] The growth in the number of corporations

  [B] The general pay rise with a better economy

  [C] Increased business opportunities for top firms

  [D] Close cooperation among leading economies

  27. Compared with their predecessors, today´s CEOs are required to______

  [A] foster a stronger sense of teamwork

  [B] finance more research and development

  [C] establish closer ties with tech companies

  [D] operate more globalized companies

  28. CEO pay has been rising since the 1970s despite______

  [A] continual internal opposition

  [B] strict corporate governance

  [C] conservative business strategies

  [D] Repeated government warnings

  29. High CEO pay can be justified by the fact that it helps______

  [A] confirm the status of CEOs

  [B] motivate inside candidates

  [C] boost the efficiency of CEOs

  [D] increase corporate value

  30. The most suitable title for this text would be______

  [A] CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  [B] CEO Pay: Past and Present

  [C] CEOs´ challenges of Today

  [D] CEO Traits: Not Easy to Define

  26.【答案】C Increased business opportunities for top firms

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞CEO pay rise及題干中對CEO薪酬增加原因的提問,定位到第二段首句The best model for understanding the growth of CEO pay is that of limited CEO talent in a world where business opportunities for the top firms are growing rapidly.了解CEO薪酬增長的最佳模式是,CEO人才在一個頂級公司的商業機會迅速增長的世界里是有限的。正確答案C Increased business opportunities for top firms增加頂級公司商業機會的增加。干擾項A的The growth in the number of corporations公司數量的增長,文中并不是說公司數量而是商業機會,屬于偷換概念。選項B的The general pay rise with a better economy好轉的經濟帶來的普遍加薪,文中并未提到better economy,屬于無中生有。選項D的Close cooperation among leading economies 主要經濟體之間的密切合作,文中也并未提到經濟體之間的何做,屬于無中生有。

  27.【答案】D operate more globalized companies

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞predecessors及today´s CEOs定位到第三段第二句They also need better public relations skills than their predecessors, as the costs of even a minor slipup can be significant. 他們還需要比他們的前任更好的公關技巧,因為即使是一個小失誤的成本也可能是巨大的。選項中并未提到,繼續往后看Then there´s the fact that large American companies are much more globalized than ever before, with supply chains spread across a larger number of countries. 還有一個事實是,美國的大公司比以往任何時候都更加全球化,供應鏈遍布更多的國家。正確答案D operate more globalized companies經營更全球化的公司是該句內容的同義替換。干擾項A的foster a stronger sense of teamwork培養更強的團隊合作意識,文中提到意識,只有對金融市場有很好的了解,甚至公司應該如何進行交易的意識,屬于偷換概念。選項B的finance more research and development資助更多的研發,定位段并沒有提到,屬于無中生有。選項D的establish closer ties with tech companies與科技公司建立更緊密的聯系,定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。

  28.【答案】B strict corporate governance

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞the 1970s定位到第四段第三句Yet it is principally during this period of stronger governance that CEO pay has been high and rising. 然而,首席執行官的薪酬主要是在這一治理更加有力的時期一直居高不下。正確答案B strict corporate governance嚴格的公司管理,屬于原文內容的替換表達。干擾項A的continual internal opposition持續的內部對立在文中并未提到,屬于無中生有。選項C的 conservative business strategies 保守的商業策略,定位段并沒有提到,屬于無中生有。選項D的repeated government warnings 政府的再三警告定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。

  29.【答案】D increase corporate value

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞High CEO pay及順序出題規則,繼續看尾段,定位句是And the stock market reacts positively when companies tie CEO pay to, say, stock prices, a sign that those practices build up corporate value not just for the CEO.當公司把首席執行官的薪酬與股票價格掛鉤時,股票市場的反應是積極的,這表明這些做法不僅為首席執行官帶來機制,而且創造了公司價值。正確答案D increase corporate value增加公司價值,是原文內容的替換表達。干擾項A的confirm the status of CEOs證實CEO的地位,定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。選項B的motivate inside candidates激發內部候選人的積極性,文中尾段首句首席執行官的最高薪水是付給外部候選人的,而不是付給那些舒適的內部人選,屬于偷換概念。選項C的boost the efficiency of CEOs提高CEO的效率,定位段未提到,屬于無中生有。

  30. 【答案】A CEOs Are Not Overpaid

  解析:本題目為主旨題,考察文章主旨。根據題干分析文章主題詞為CEO的薪酬,所以排除C項、D項選項A的CEOs Are Not Overpaid 首席執行官的薪水并不高。選項B的CEO Pay: Past and Present CEO的薪酬:過去和現在,而CEO過去的薪酬并不是原文中心,屬于偏離主題,因此正確選項為A。

  Text 3

  Madrid was hailed as a public health beacon last November when it rolled out ambitious restrictions on the most polluting cars. Seven months and one election day later, a new conservative city council suspended enforcement of the clean air zone, a first step toward its possible demise.

  Mayor Jose Luis Martinez -Almeida made opposition to the zone a centrepiece of his election campaign, despite its success in improving air quality. A judge has now overruled the city ´s decision to stop levying fines, ordering them reinstated. But with legal battles ahead, the zone´s future looks uncertain at best.

  Among other weaknesses, the measures cities must employ when left to tackle dirty air on their own are politically contentious, and therefore vulnerable. That s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers一who must pay fees or buy better vehicles 一rather than on to the car manufacturers whose cheating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.

  It´s not hard to imagine a similar reversal happening in London. The new ultra-low emission zone (Ulez) is likely to be a big issue in next year´s mayoral election. And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.

  It´s not that measures such as London´s Ulez are useless. Far from it. Local officials are using the levers that are available to them to safeguard residents´ health in the face of a serious threat. The zones do deliver some improvements to air quality, and the science tells us that means real health benefits - fewer heart attacks, strokes and premature births, less cancer, dementia and asthma. Fewer untimely deaths.

  But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments一Britain s and others across Europe - have failed to do so.

  Restrictions that keep highly polluting cars out of certain areas - city centres, 。school streets", even individual roads - are a response to the absence of a larger effort to properly enforce existing regulations and require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance. Wales has introduced special low speed limits to minimise pollution. We re doing everything but insist that manufacturers clean up their cars.

  31. Which of the following is true about Madrid´s clean air zone?

  [A] Its effects are questionable

  [B]It has been opposed by a judge

  [C] It needs tougher enforcement

  [D] Its fate is yet to be decided

  32. Which is considered a weakness of the city-level measures to tackle dirty air?

  [A] They are biased against car manufacturers.

  [B] They prove impractical for city councils.

  [C] They are deemed too mild for politicians.

  D] They put too much burden on individual motorists.

  33. The author believes that the extension of London´s Ulez will .

  [A] arouse strong resistance.

  [B] ensure Khan´s electoral success.

  [C] improve the city s traffic.

  [D] discourage car manufacturing.

  34. Who does the author think should have addressed the problem?

  [A] Local residents

  [B]Mayors.

  [C] Councilors.

  [D] National governments.

  35. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that auto companies.

  [A] will raise low-emission car production

  [B]should be forced to follow regulations

  [C] will upgrade the design of their vehicles

  [D] should be put under public supervision

  31.【答案】D Its fate is yet to be decided

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞Madrid´s clean air zone定位到前兩段,首段說明背景Madrid´s clean air zone的執行暫停。繼續找第二段,盡管能夠提高空氣質量,但是市長表示反對。一位法官現在否決了該市停止征收罰款的決定,下令恢復原狀。但隨著法律斗爭的進行,Madrid´s clean air zone的未來看起來也不確定。正確答案D Its fate is yet to be decided它的命運尚未決定,是原文內容的替換表達。選項A的 Its effects are questionable.其效果值得懷疑。與原文內容相反,屬于正反混淆。選項B的It has been opposed by a judge.它遭到法官的反對。文中法官反對的并不是Madrid´s clean air zone,而是停止征收罰款的決定。選項C的It needs tougher enforcement.它需要更嚴格的執行。文中是執行已經停止,與原文內容不符,屬于偷換概念。

  32.【答案】D They put too much burden on individual motorists.

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞a weakness of the city-level measures及tackle dirty air定位到第三段第二句:That’s because they inevitably put the costs of cleaning the air on to individual drivers—who must pay fees or buy better vehicles—rather than on to the car manufacturers whose heating is the real cause of our toxic pollution.這是因為他們不可避免地把清潔空氣的費用轉嫁給那些必須支付費用或購買更好車輛的司機,而不是汽車制造商,因為他們的供暖是造成我們有毒污染的真正原因。正確答案D They put too much burden on individual motorists.他們給個人駕車者增加了太多負擔與原文內容一致。選項A的 They are biased again car manufactures.他們對汽車制造商有偏見,文中提到汽車制造商,卻并未提到對其有無偏見,屬于偷換概念。選項B的They prove impractical for city councils.這些措施對市議會來說是不切實際的。選項C的They are deemed too mild for politicians.他們被認為對政治家來說太溫和了。定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。

  33.【答案】A arouse strong resistance

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干關鍵詞 extension和London’s Ulez定位到第四段:And if Sadiq Khan wins and extends it to the North and South Circular roads in 2021 as he intends, it is sure to spark intense opposition from the far larger number of motorists who will then be affected.如果 Sadiq Khan在2021年勝出,并按照他的意愿將其延伸至南北環路,肯定會引發更多駕車者的強烈反對,屆時他們將受到影響。正確答案A arouse strong resistance引起強烈抵抗與原文內容一致。選項B的ensure Khans electoral success確保Khans選舉成功,文中提到的是如果這個人贏了,屬于偷換概念。選項C的 improve the city´s traffic改善城市交通,定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。選項D的discourage car manufacturing抑制汽車制造業也并未在定位段提到,屬于無中生有。

  34.【答案】D National governments

  解析:本題目為細節題,考察具體細節。根據題干信息,問的是作者的具體觀點。定位到第六段:But mayors and councillors can only do so much about a problem that is far bigger than any one city or town. They are acting because national governments-Britain´s and others across Europe- have failed to do so.但是市長和議員們只能對一個比任何一個城市或城鎮都大得多的問題做這么多的工作。他們之所以采取行動,是因為英國和歐洲其他國家的政府未能做到這一點。正確答案D National governments作者認為國家政府應該解決這個問題,與原文內容一致。選項A的 Local residents當地居民,定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。選項B和C的mayors and councillors出現在定位句,但是與原文內容相反,屬于正反混淆。

  35. 【答案】B should be forced to follow regulations

  解析:本題目為推斷題,考察具體細節的推斷。根據題干信息auto companies,定位到尾段首句:require auto companies to bring their vehicles into compliance要求汽車公司使其車輛符合要求。正確答案B should be forced to follow regulations應該被迫遵守規定,與原文信息一致。選項A的 will raise low-emission car production將提高低排放汽車產量,定位段并未提到,屬于無中生有。選項C和D的will upgrade the design of their vehicles 和 should be put under public supervision將升級他們的車輛設計、應該接受公眾監督在原文中沒有相關信息。

  Text4

  Now that members of Generation Z are graduating college this springthe most commonly-accepted definition says this generation was bom after 1995, give or take a year-the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks. GenZs are about to hit the streets looking for work in a labor market that´s tighter than it´s been in decades. And employers are planning on hiring about 17 percent more new graduates for jobs in the U.S. this year than last, according to a survey conducted by the National Association of Colleges and Employers. Everybody wants to know how the people who will soon inhabit those empty office cubicles will differ from those who came before them.

  If"entitled"is the most common adjective, fairly or not, applied to millennials (those bom between 1981 and 1995), the catchwords for Generation Z are practical and cautious. According to the career counselors and expert who study them, Generation Zs are clear-eyed, economic pragmatists. Despite graduating into the best economy in the past 50 years, Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like. They were impressionable kids during the crash of 2008, when many of their parents lost their jobs or their life savings or both. They aren,´t interested in taking any chances. The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt. College loan balances in the U.S. now stand at a record $1.5 trillion, according to the Federal Reserve.

  One survey from Accenture found that 88 percent of graduating seniors this year chose their major with a job in mind. In a 2019 survey of University of Georgia students, meanwhile, the career office found the most desirable trait in a future employer was the ability to offer secure employment (followed by professional development and training, and then inspiring purpose). Job security or stability was the second most important career goal (work-life balance was number one), followed by a sense of being dedicated to a cause or to feel good about serving the great good.

  36. Generation Zs graduating college this spring_____.

  [A] are recognized for their abilities

  [B] are in favor of job offers

  [C] are optimistic about the labor market

  [D] are drawing growing public attention

  37. Generation Zs are keenly aware_____.

  [A] what a tough economic situation is like

  [B] what their parents expect of them

  [C] how they differ from past generations

  [D] I how valuable a counselors advice is

  38. The word"assuage"(line 9, para 2)is closet in meaning to_____.

  [A]define [B]relieve [C] maintain [D] deepen

  39.It can be learned from Paragraph 3 that Generation Zs_____.

  [A] care little about their job performance

  [B] give top priority to professional training

  [C]think it hard to achieve work-Life balance

  [D] have a clear idea about their future job

  40 Michelsen thinks that compared with millennials, Generation Zs are_____.

  [A]less realistic B] less adventurous [C]more diligent [D] more generous

  36. 【C】are drawing growing public attention細節題。根據題干直接定位到文章根據提干第一段第一句話。信息選項中的“drawing growing public attention ”則對應到句中的“the attention has been rising steadily in recent weeks” (近幾周的關注度在穩步提高)”,其中attention原詞復現,rising和growing同義復現;而其他的選項則與最佳選項無緣,在定位區間中沒有相應的對應信息。

  37. 【B】what a tough economic situation is like;細節題。根據題干中詢問Generation Z的特點我們來到第二段。題干中的aware直接定位到第二段第四行”Gen Zs know what an economic train wreck looks like(經濟列車受到重創是什么樣子的)”;信息選項中的“tough economic situation ”則對應到句中的“economic train wreck ”;而其他的選項則與最佳選項無緣,在定位區間中沒有相應的對應信息。

  38. 【C】relieve;猜詞題。根據題干,可以定位到第九段第二句話:“The booming economy seems to have done little to assuage this underlying generational sense of anxious urgency, especially for those who have college debt”,所以解題的關鍵是判斷”The booming economy(繁榮的經濟)”和”generational sense of anxious urgency(代際焦慮)”的關系;根據常識判斷,繁榮的經濟可以降低求職者的焦慮;再結合上一道題我們知道,Gen Zs是務實和謹慎(practical and cautious)的一代;由此可以得出繁榮的經濟并未降低求職者的焦慮,原文已有并未(have done little),選項B中的relieve(減輕)與我們的判斷一致,因此答案為C。而其它的選項A define(定義),B maintain(保持),deepen(加深)和我們的判斷都不一致。

  39. 【A】have a clear idea about their future jobs; 推斷題。題目中明確出題段落(from Paragraph 3)。因此,第三段的第一句chose their major with a job in mind(按照自己的理想工作選擇專業)和選項D have a clear idea about their future jobs(對自己的未來工作有明確認識)相符合。根據原文中的第二句話(未來雇主最重要的特性是工作的穩定性,第二位是職業發展與培訓,第三位是吸引人的目標)排除答案A和B;選項C并未體現。

  40. 【B】less adventurous;細節題。題干中的compared with millennials定位到文章第二段:the catch words for Gen Zs are practical and cautious(Gen Zs的口號是務實和謹慎);由此判斷出選項B不愛冒險為正確答案。其余均與原文不不符。

  Part B

  Directions:

  Read the following text and answer the questions by choosing the most suitable subheading from the list A-G for each numbered paragraphs (41 -45). There are two extra subheadings which you do not need to use. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A]Give compliments, just not too many.

  [B] Put on a good face, always.

  [C] Tailor your interactions.

  [D] Spend time with everyone.

  [E] Reveal, don´ t hide, information.

  [F] Slow down and listen.

  [G] Put yourselves in others´ shoes.

  Five Ways to Win Over Everyone in the Office

  Is it possible to like everyone in your office? Think about how tough it is to get together 15 people, much less 50, who all get along perfectly. But unlike in friendships, you need coworkers. You work with them every day and you depend on them just as they depend on you. Here are some ways that you can get the whole office on your side

  41.____

  If you have a bone to pick with someone in your workplace, you may try stay tight-lipped around them. But you won´t be helping either one of you. A Harvard Business School study found that observers consistently rated those who were frank about themselves more highly, while those who hid lost trustworthiness. The lesson is not that you should make your personal life an open book, but rather, when given the option to offer up details about yourself or painstakingly conceal them, you should just be honest.

  42._____

  Just as important as being honest about yourself is being receptive to others. We often feel the need to tell others how we feel, whether it´s a concern about a project, a stray thought, or a compliment. Those are all valid, but you need to take time to hear out your coworkers, too. In fact, rushing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don´t value their opinions. Do your best to engage coworkers in a genuine, back- and-forth conversation, rather than prioritizing your own thoughts.

  43._____

  It´s common to have a“cubicle mate" or special confidant in a work setting. But in addition to those trusted coworkers, you should expand your horizons and find out about all the people around you. Use your lunch and coffee breaks to meet up with colleagues you don´t always see. Find out about their lives and interests beyond the job. It requires minimal effort and goes a long way. This will help to gTow your internal network, in addition to being a nice break in the work day.

  44._____

  Positive feedback is important for anyone to hear. And you don´t have to be someone´s boss to tell them they did an exceptional job on a particular project. This will help engender good will in others. But don´t overdo it or be fake about it. One study found that people responded best to comments that shifted from negative to positive, possibly because it suggested they had won somebody over.

  45.______

  This one may be a bit more difficult to pull off, but it can go a long way to achieving results. Remember in dealing with any coworker what they appreciate from an interaction. Watch out for how they verbalize with others. Some people like small talk in a meeting before digging into important matters, while other are more straightforward. Jokes that work one person won´t necessarily land with another, So, adapt your style accordingly to type. Consider the person that you re dealing with in advance and what will get you to your desired outcome.

  41. 答案是E Reveal, don’t hide, information

  解析:根據段落轉折句,“你這樣做對誰都沒有好處。”所以接下來就是作者的觀點。他說一個研究發現觀察者們一直對那些和他們坦誠的人評價很高,而對那些有所隱藏的失去信任。所以就是要真實,不要隱藏信息。

  42. 答案是F Slow down and listen

  解析:根據段落中心句: In fact, rishing to get your own ideas out there can cause colleagues to feel you don’t value their opinions. 意思是實際上,急著表達你的觀點可能會讓同事們覺得你沒有重視他們的觀點。因此就是聽取別人的觀點。

  43. 答案是D Spend time with everyone

  解析:根據段落轉折句,“除了那些你信任的同事,你還應該擴大你的圈子,并且尋找所有你身邊的人。因此就是要和每個人在一起。

  44. 答案是A Give compliments, just not too many

  解析:根據段落轉折句,“但是不要過度去做或者做假。應該做的內容就在下句,“一個研究發現,人們對于從負面到正面的評價反應最好,也許因為這個評價表明他們有比其他人做得好。因此這就是要稱贊,但是不能太多。

  45. 答案是C Tailor your interactions

  解析:根據段落中心句,最后一句:So, adapt your style accordingly to type. 意思是要相應地把你的風格適合于不同的類型。也就是因人而異的意思。


在職讀研實用信息
版權聲明
    凡本站稿件類型為“原創”的所有文字、圖片和音視頻等稿件,均為啟文教育網版權所有,未經本站協議授權,任何媒體、網站及個人均不得轉載或以其它方式發表,違者必究。如需轉載,請注明出處。
相關資訊文章
熱點推薦簡章
推薦閱讀
網友閱讀
熱門招生院校
熱門招生專業

中國在職研究生網請您關注

  • 微信公眾號
    微信公眾號
  • 微博關注
    微博關注
博远棋牌下载v1.5官方版